Plone content is organized to a tree. Traversing means looking up content from this tree by path. When HTTP request hits a Plone server, Plone will traverse the corresponding content item and its view function by URI.
- Object ids
- Exploring Zope application server
- Attribute traversing
- Container traversing
- Traversing by full path
- Getting the object path
- Getting object URL
- Getting the parent
- Getting the site root
- Getting Zope application server handle
- Acquisition effect
- Default content item
- Custom traversal
- Traverse events
- Advanced traversing with search conditions
- Other resources
In Plone, all content is mapped to a single tree: content objects, user objects, templates, etc. Even most object methods are directly mapped to HTTP-accessible URIs.
Each object has a path depending on its location. Traversal is a method of getting a handle on a persistent object in the ZODB object graph from its path.
Traversal can happen in two places:
- When an HTTP request hits the server, the method on the object which will generate the HTTP response is looked up using traversal.
- You can manually traverse the ZODB tree in your code to locate objects by their path.
When an HTTP request is being published the traversing happens in
... but Zope includes other traversers, like
the OFS module. Different traversing methods behave differently and may
fire different events.
Each content object has an id string which identifies the object in the parent container. The id string is visible in the browser address bar when you view the object. Ids are also visible in the Zope Management interface.
Besides id strings, the content objects have Unique Identifiers, or UID, which do not change even if the object is moved or renamed.
Though it's technically possible for ids to contain spaces or slashes, this is seldom a good idea, as it complicates working with ids in various situations.
The Zope path is the location of the object in the object graph. It is a sequence of id components from the parent node(s) to the child separated by slashes.
A path need not always be a sequence of object ids. During traversal, an object may consume subsequent path elements, interpreting them however it likes.
You can use the Zope Management interface to explore the content of your Zope application server:
- Folders within the sites
- ...and so on
The ZMI does not expose individual attributes. It only exposes traversable content objects.
Zope exposes child objects as attributes.
# you have obtained the plone.org portal root object somehow and it's # stored in local variable "portal" documentation = portal.documentation howTos = getattr(portal, "how-to") # note that we need use getattr because dash is invalid in syntax myHowTo = getattr(howTos, "manipulating-plone-objects-programmatically")
Zope exposes child objects as container accessor.
# you have obtained the plone.org portal root object somehow and it's # stored in a local variable "portal" documentation = portal["documentation"] howTos = documentation["how-to"] myHowTo = howTos["manipulating-plone-objects-programmatically"]
Any content object provides the methods
unrestrictedTraverse(). See Traversable.
restrictedTraverse() executes with the privileges
of the currently logged-in user. An Unauthorized exception is raised if
the code tries to access an object for which the user lacks the Access
contents information and View permissions.
myHowTo = portal.restrictedTraverse("documentation/howTos/myHowTo") # Bypass security myHowTo = portal.unrestrictedTraverse("documentation/howTos/myHowTo")
unrestrictedTraverse() does not honor
IPublishTraverse adapters. Read more about the issue in this
An object has two paths:
- The physical path is the absolute location in the current ZODB object graph. This includes the site instance name as part of it.
- The virtual path is the object location relative to the Plone site root.
Path mangling warning: Always store paths as virtual paths, or persistently stored paths will corrupt if you rename your site instance.
path = portal.getPhysicalPath() # returns "plone"
For content items you can use
absolute_url_path() from OFS.Traversable:
path = context.absolute_url_path()
Map physical path to virtual path using HTTP request object
request = self.request # HTTPRequest object path = portal.document.getPhysicalPath() virtual_path = request.physicalPathToVirtualPath(path) # returns "document"
The virtual path is not necessarily the path relative to the site root, depending on the virtual host configuration.
There is no a direct, easy way to accomplish this.
from zope.component import getMultiAdapter def getSiteRootRelativePath(context, request): """ Get site root relative path to an item @param context: Content item which path is resolved @param request: HTTP request object @return: Path to the context object, relative to site root, prefixed with a slash. """ portal_state = getMultiAdapter((context, request), name=u'plone_portal_state') site = portal_state.portal() # Both of these are tuples site_path = site.getPhysicalPath(); context_path = context.getPhysicalPath() relative_path = context_path[len(site_path):] return "/" + "/".join(relative_path)
absolute_url(). See Traversable.
URL mangling warning:
absolute_url() is sensitive to virtual host
absolute_url() will return different results depending on
if you access your site from URLs http://yourhost/ or
http://yourhost:8080/Plone. Do not persistently store the result of
url = portal.absolute_url() # http://nohost/plone in unit tests
The object parent is accessible is acquisition chain for the object is set.
parent = object.aq_parent
The parent is defined as
__parent__ attribute of the object instance:
object.__parent__ = object.aq_parent
__parent__ is set when object's
__of__() method is called:
view = MyBrowserView(context, request) view = view.__of__(context) # Inserts view into acquisition chain and acquisition functions become available
def getAcquisitionChain(object): """ @return: List of objects from context, its parents to the portal root Example:: chain = getAcquisitionChain(self.context) print "I will look up objects:" + str(list(chain)) @param object: Any content object @return: Iterable of all parents from the direct parent to the site root """ # It is important to use inner to bootstrap the traverse, # or otherwise we might get surprising parents # E.g. the context of the view has the view as the parent # unless inner is used inner = object.aq_inner iter = inner while iter is not None: yield iter if ISiteRoot.providedBy(iter): break if not hasattr(iter, "aq_parent"): raise RuntimeError("Parent traversing interrupted by object: " + str(parent)) iter = iter.aq_parent
You can resolve the site root if you have the handle to any context object.
from Products.CMFCore.utils import getToolByName # you know some object which is referred as "context" portal_url = getToolByName(context, "portal_url") portal = portal_url.getPortalObject()
You can also do shortcut using acquisition:
portal = context.portal_url.getPortalObject()
Application code should use the
getToolByName method, rather
than simply acquiring the tool by name, to ease forward migration (e.g.,
Site is also stored as a thread-local variable. In Zope each request is processed in its own thread. Site thread local is set when the request processing starts.
You can use this method even if you do not have the context object available, assuming that your code is called after Zope has traversed the context object once.
from zope.component.hooks import getSite site = getSite() # returns portal root from thread local storage
Before Plone 4.3 getSite resided in zope.app.component.hooks. See http://plone.org/documentation/manual/upgrade-guide/version/upgrading-plone-4.2-to-4.3/referencemanual-all-pages
Due to the fact that Plone does not show the default content item
as a separate object, the page you are viewing in the browser from the
site root URL is not necessary the root item itself. For example, in the
default Plone installation this URL internally maps to Page whose id is
front-page and you can still query the actual parent object which is
the site root.
If you need to traverse using user visible breadcrumbs, see how breadcrumbs viewlet code does it.
portal_url are not available, but you still
have the acquisition chain intact. In these cases you can simply traverse
parent objects back to the site root by iterating over the aquisition-chain or using the
from Products.CMFCore.interfaces import ISiteRoot def getSite(context): if not ISiteRoot.providedBy(context): return context else: for item in context.aq_chain: if ISiteRoot.providedBy(item): return item
You can also access other sites within the same application server from your code.
app = context.restrictedTraverse('/') # Zope application server root site = app["plone"] # your plone instance site2 = app["mysiteid"] # another site
Sometimes traversal can give you attributes which actually do not exist on the object, but are inherited from the parent objects in the persistent object graph. See acquisition.
Default content item or view sets some challenges for the traversing, as the object published path and internal path differ.
Below is an example to get the folder of the published object (parent folder for the default item) in page templates:
<div tal:define="folder context/@@plone_context_state/canonical_object" tal:condition="python:hasattr(folder, 'carousel') and hasattr(folder['carousel'], 'carouselText')">xxx</div>
Example code below:
from zope.component import getMultiAdapter from plone.app.layout.navigation.interfaces import INavigationRoot def isFrontPage(self): """ Check if the viewlet is on a front page. Handle canonical paths correctly. """ # Get path with "Default content item" wrapping applied context_helper = getMultiAdapter((self.context, self.request), name="plone_context_state") canonical = context_helper.canonical_object() path = canonical.absolute_url_path() return INavigationRoot.providedBy(canonical)
There exist many ways to make your objects traversable:
__getitem__()which makes your objects act like Python dictionary. This is the simplest method and recommended.
IPublishTraverseinterface. There is an example below and works for making nice urls and path munging.
ITraversableinterface. You can create your own traversing hooks.
zope.traversing.interfaces.ITraversableprovides an interface traversable objects must provider. You need to register
ITraversableas adapter for your content types. This is only for publishing methods for HTTP requests.
__bobo_traverse__()which is an archaic method from the early 2000s.
Zope traversal is a minefield. There are different traversers.
One is the ZPublisher traverser which does HTTP request looks. One is
OFS.Traversable.unrestrictedTraverse() which is used when you call
traverse from Python code. Then another case is
zope.tales.expression.PathExpr which uses a really simple traverser.
AttributeError is risen inside a
function bad things happen, as Zope publisher specially handles this and
NotFound exception which will mask the actual problem.
class Viewlets(BrowserView): """ Expose arbitrary viewlets to traversing by name. Exposes viewlets to templates by names. Example how to render plone.logo viewlet in arbitrary template code point:: <div tal:content="context/@@viewlets/plone.logo" /> """ ... def __getitem__(self, name): """ Allow travering intoviewlets by viewlet name. @return: Viewlet HTML output @raise: ViewletNotFoundException if viewlet is not found """ viewlet = self.setupViewletByName(name) if viewlet is None: active_layers = [ str(x) for x in self.request.__provides__.__iro__ ] active_layers = tuple(active_layers) raise ViewletNotFoundException("Viewlet does not exist by" "name %s for the active theme layer set %s." "Probably theme interface not registered in " "plone.browserlayers. Try reinstalling the theme." % (name, str(active_layers))) viewlet.update() return viewlet.render()
from Products.Five.browser import BrowserView from zope.publisher.interfaces import IPublishTraverse from zope.interface import implementer from zope.component import getMultiAdapter from AccessControl import getSecurityManager from AccessControl import Unauthorized from plone import api @implementer(IPublishTraverse) class MyUser(BrowserView): """Registered as a browser view at '/user', collect the username and view name from the url, check security, and display that page. For example, '/user/jjohns/log' will look up the log view for user 'jjohns' """ path =  def publishTraverse(self, request, name): # stop traversing, we have arrived request['TraversalRequestNameStack'] =  # return self so the publisher calls this view return self def __init__(self, context, request): """Once we get to __call__, the path is lost so we capture it here on initialization """ super(MyUser, self).__init__(context, request) self.section = 'profile-latest' # default page if len(request.path) == 2: [self.section, profileid] = request.path elif len(self.request.path) == 1: self.section = request.path def __call__(self): # do the permission check here, now that Zope has set # up the security context. It can't be checked in __init__ # because the security manager isn't set up on traverse self.checkPermission() # XXX: still need to check the permission of the view try: view = api.content.get_view(self.section, self.context, self.request) except api.exc.InvalidParameterError: # just return the default view view = api.content.get_view('profile-latest', self.context, self.request) return view() def checkPermission(self): """You might want to do other stuff""" raise Unauthorized
zope.traversing.interfaces.IBeforeTraverseEvent for register a
traversing hook for Plone site object or such.
from Products.CMFCore.interfaces import ISiteRoot from zope.traversing.interfaces import IBeforeTraverseEvent from five import grok @grok.subscribe(ISiteRoot, IBeforeTraverseEvent) def check_redirect(site, event): """ """ request = event.request # XXX: To something
ZPublisher.BeforeTraverse to register traverse hooks for any
Example - not sure if before travese hooks are persistent or not
All Plone content should exist in the portal_catalog. Catalog provides fast query access with various indexes to the Plone content.