How does Zope handle permissions, roles and users?
Much of Zope security is implemented in C, for speed, but there is a Python
AccessControl.ImplPython, which can be enabled by setting
security-policy-implementation python in
Note: We will not discuss RestrictedPython, used to apply security restrictions to through-the-web python scripts and page templates, here.
The permissions required to access a given attribute are stored on classes and
modules in a variable called
__ac_permissions__. This contains a tuple of
tuples that map a permission name to a list of attributes (e.g. methods)
protected by that permission, e.g.:
__ac_permissions__ = ( ('View management screens', ['manage', 'manage_menu', 'manage_main', 'manage_copyright', 'manage_tabs', 'manage_propertiesForm', 'manage_UndoForm']), ('Undo changes', ['manage_undo_transactions']), ('Change permissions', ['manage_access']), ('Add objects', ['manage_addObject']), ('Delete objects', ['manage_delObjects']), ('Add properties', ['manage_addProperty']), ('Change properties', ['manage_editProperties']), ('Delete properties', ['manage_delProperties']), ('Default permission', ['']), )
The roles required to access an object (e.g. a content object), are stored
in a class or instance variable
__roles__. This may contain a tuple or list
of role names, an
AccessControl.PermissionRole.PermissionRole object, or one
of the following special variables:
- Inaccessible from any context.
- Accessible only from Python code.
- Accessible from restricted Python code and publishable through the web (provided the object has a docstring).
For attributes (including methods), the roles are stored on the parent class in
a variable called
<name> is the attribute name.
Again, the special variables
ACCESS_PUBLIC can be used.
These variables are rarely set manually. Instead, declarative security info is typically used. For example:
from App.class_init import InitializeClass from AccessControl.SecurityInfo import ClassSecurityInfo from OFS.SimpleItem import Item class SomeClass(Item): ... security = ClassSecurityInfo() security.declareObjectPublic() # like __roles__ = ACCESS_PUBLIC security.declareProtected('Some permission, 'someMethod') def someMethod(self): ... InitializeClass(SomeClass)
There is also
security.declarePublic(attribute), which do as their names suggest to
make an object or attribute protected, private or public.
Attribute security can be set in ZCML using the
<class /> directive with
one or more
<require /> sub-directives:
<class class=".someclass.SomeClass"> <require permission="some.permission" attributes="someMethod" /> </class>
Behind the scenes, this simply creates a
ClassSecurityInfo instance and invokes it
on the attributes listed as applicable. This will also call
on the given class.
Note that the
<require /> directive, in common with all ZCML directives,
uses ZTK-style permission names, not Zope 2-style permission strings. A ZTK
permission is a named utility providing
zope.security.interfaces.IPermission, with an
id that is the short
(usually dotted) name that is also the utility name, and a
matches the Zope 2 name. New permissions can be registered using the
<permission /> directive:
<permission id="some.permission" title="Some permission" />
Zope 2-style permission names spring into existence whenever used in a security
declaration, which makes them susceptible to typos (ZTK-style
utilities must be explicitly registered before they can be used).
Permissions are also represented by "mangled" permission names, which simply
turn the arbitrary string name of a permission into a valid Python identifier.
For example, the permission
"Access contents information" becomes
_Access_contents_information_Permission. The mangling is done by the
ClassSecurityInfo does little except record information until the
InitializeClass() call is made with the class as an argument. This will:
Loop over all attributes and assign a
__name__attribute to the value of any attribute in the class's
__dict__that has the
_need__name__marker set (this is used by through-the-web DTML and Zope Page Template objects that may not have a name until they are assigned to their parent).
Look for any function with the name
manage()or a name starting with
manage_. If this does not have a corresponding
<name>__roles__attribute, one is created with the roles
('Manager',), as a way to automatically protect such methods.
Look for any security info object (i.e. an attribute that has an attribute
__security_info__). If one is found, call its
apply()method with the class as an argument, and then delete it.
Collect any explicitly set
__ac_permissions__tuple and turn it into internal state, as if the
ClassSecurityInfohad been used to set it, so that it is not lost.
For any attribute declared with
__ac_permissions__tuple from the saved declarations of any protected attributes.
As a special case, a call to
security.declareObjectProtected(<permission>)will result in a value stored with an empty attribute name, which later translates as setting
__roles__directly on the class.
__ac_permissions__on the class (probably created by the security info
apply()call) and call
AccessControl.Permission.registerPermissionswith it as an argument. This will register the permission in a global list of known permissions with their default roles (usually
('Manager',)) held in that module under the variable
_ac_permissions. The mangled permission name (see above) will also be set as a class attribute on the class
AccessControl.Permission.ApplicationDefaultPermissions, which is a base class of the application root (
OFS.Application.Application), hence making the mangled permission names available as (acquirable) class attributes on the application root. The value of this class variable is a tuple with the default roles for that permission.
For all permissions in
__ac_permissions__and for all attribute (method) names assigned to each permission, set a class attribute
PermissionRoleobject. If a default list/tuple of roles was supplied, record this in the
PermissionRole, otherwise default to
To perform security checks, it is necessary to compare the roles a user has
with the roles required for a given permission. The method to determine the
roles of a permission on a given object is called
It is found in
AccessControl.ImplPython, though a C implementation may
also be in use.
rolesForPermissionOn() can be called directly, but it should be imported
AccessControl.PermissionRole to ensure the correct implementation (C
or Python) is used. Alternatively, the correct implementation can be accessed
by using the
rolesForPermissionOn() method of a
which will supply the correct permission name and default roles.
rolesForPermissionOn() does the following:
- Mangle the permission name (see above).
- Traverse from the object up the inner (containment) acquisition chain to find an
object with the mangled permission name as an attribute. Then:
- If the attribute is
None, this is actually the
- If the sequence of roles is a tuple, this is a signal to not acquire roles from parent objects. Stop and return any roles collected by walking the acquisition chain so far plus the roles at the current object.
- If the sequence of roles is a list, this is a signal to acquire roles from parent objects. Hence, collect the roles at the current object and continue the walk up the acquisition chain.
- If roles is a string, assumed to be a different mangled permission name, this is a signal to delegate to another permission. Continue acquisition from the parent, but discard any roles acquired so far.
- If the attribute is
- If no object with the mangled permission attribute is found, return the
default roles. Applicable default roles are stored in each
PermissionRoleobject, but for other types of roles, use
- In all cases, if the global variable
_embed_permission_in_rolesis true, include the mangled permission name in the list of roles returned (even if an empty list). This is used as a debugging aid.
The most basic permission check can be done using:
from AccessControl import getSecurityManager sm = getSecurityManager() sm.checkPermission('Some permission', someObject)
This returns either
None to indicate whether the current user
has such a permission.
The call to
getSecurityManager() returns a security manager instance for the
current request. A security manager is created using
validated_hook at the end of traversal (hence note that it is not set
during traversal itself; specifically it is not set when a view adapter is being
looked up and instantiated and so there is no security information available in
__init__() of a view), which creates a new security manager with a
context that is aware of the current authenticated user (or
there is none).
Again, the security manager may use a C implementation, but the default one
is defined in
AccessControl.ImplPython. The two most important methods on
this object are
checkPermission() (seen above) and
is used during traversal to validate access to an object and will throw an
Unauthorized exception if not valid. Both of these delegate to a security
policy, which will invariably be the
ZopeSecurityPolicy also found in
ImplPython (or C code) and instantiated once with a module-level call to
checkPermission() implementation in
ZopeSecurityPolicy is relatively
simple. It uses
rolesForPermissionOn() to discover the roles on the object,
and then obtains the current user from the security context (passed as a
parameter to its version of
checkPermission()) and calls the user object's
allowed() method with the object and its roles.
Additionally, if the security policy allows for it (which it will by default), checks are made to ensure that if the "execution context" has an owner (e.g. it is a through-the-web Python script or template owned by a particular user), the owner as well as the current user has the appropriate roles, otherwise access is disallowed. Also, if proxy roles are set (again applicable to through-the-web scripts), these are allowed to be used in lieu of the user's actual roles.
There are various user implementations that can treat
The most common use in Plone is the
Products.PluggableAuthService (PAS), though there is also a basic
AccessControl.users.BasicUser, and a class called
SpecialUser in the same module that is used for the
The PAS version is only marginally more complex than the
implementation (it deals with roles obtained from groups a user belongs to), so
we will describe the
allowed() implementation from
- If the object's required roles is the special variable
_what_not_even_god_should_do(you couldn't make this up), which corresponds to the
ACCESS_NONEsecurity declaration (as used by
declareObjectPrivate()), immediately disallow access.
- If the object's required roles is
None, which corresponds to the
ACCESS_PUBLICsecurity declaration (as used by
declareObjectPublic()), or if
Anonymousis one of the roles (even if the user is not
Anonymous), immediately allow access.
Authenticatedis one of the required roles and the user is not
Anonymous, immediately allow access unless the object does not share an acquisition parent with the user folder (this is to avoid users with the same id in different user folders trying to steal each other's access through acquisition tricks). This is referred to as the "context check" below.
- Check if the user's global roles intersect with the roles required to access the object, and allow access if the user passes the context check.
- Check if there are any local roles, as defined in the attribute
__ac_local_roles__, granted to the user and check these against the required roles (and perform the context check).
__ac_local_roles__may be a dictionary or a callable that returns a dictionary, containing a mapping of user ids (or group ids, if PAS is used) to local roles granted. The local role check is performed iteratively by walking up the acquisition chain and checking the instances of bound methods, up to the root of the acquisition chain.
- If none of the above succeed, return
Noneto indicate that the user is not allowed to access the object.
The second type of security operation provided by the
SecurityManager is to
check whether the user should be able to access a particular context. This is
most commonly used during traversal, by way of the user folder's
method. The version in
- Get all applicable user ids from the request. Most likely, there is only one, but PAS's modular nature means it is possible more than one plugin will supply a user id.
- Extract the following information from the published object
accessed, the object the published object was accessed through, i.e. the first traversal parent (
container, the physical container of the object, i.e. the inner acquisition parent. If the published object is a method, the container is also set to be the method, but stripped of any outer acquisition chains by a call to
aq_inner(). If the published object does not have an inner acquisition parent, the traversal parent is used in the same way as it is used to set
name, the name used to access the object, e.g. a traversal path element.
value, the object we are validating access to, i.e. the published object.
- If this is the top-level user folder and the user is the emergency user, return the user immediately without further authorization.
- Otherwise, attempt to authorize the user by creating a new security manager
for this user and calling its
The default security manager
validate() method delegates to the equivalent
method on the
ZopeSecurityPolicy. This is a charming 200+ line bundle of
if statements that does something like this:
aq_*attribute other than
aq_base'd version of
accessed. If the
accessedparent was not acquisition-wrapped, treat the
aq_base'd container as the
The caller may have passed in the required roles already as an optimization. If not, attempt to get the required roles by calling
getRoles(container, name, value). The Python version of this is defined in
AccessControl.ZopeSecurityPolicy. It does the following:
- If the
__roles__attribute, and it is
ACCESS_PUBLIC) or a list or tuple of roles, return them. (This probably means the
valueis a content object or similar.)
- If it is a
PermissionRoleobject or another object with a
rolesForPermissionOn()method (described above), call this with the
valueas an argument and return the results. (This probably means the value is a method.)
- If there is no
__roles__attribute, check if we have a
name. Return "no roles" if not.
- Attempt to find a class for the
valueis a method, go via the
im_selfattribute to get an instance to use as the
container. Then look for a
<name>__roles__attribute on the class. If this is a
rolesForPermissionOn()as above; if it is a list, tuple or one of the sentinel values (
ACCESS_NONE, return it directly.
- If the
- If we still have no roles, we may have a primitive or other simple object
that is not directly security-aware. We can still try to get security information from the
If there is no
containerpassed in, we have no way of inferring one, so all bets are off. Raise
Attempt to get a
__roles__value from the
container. If it is acquisition-wrapped, also try to explicitly acquire
__roles__if it does not have a
If this fails, then we may still be able to get some security assertions from the container (see below), but we only allow this if the
accessedparent is the
container. If the
valuewas accessed through a more convoluted acquisition chain, say, we cannot rely solely on container assertions, so we raise
At this point, there are two possibilities: we have some roles required to access the
container, or we have no roles at all, but we accessed the
valuedirectly from its parent
container. In both cases, we check container security assertions:
containeris a tuple or string, and we have gotten this far, we consider access to be allowed and return true. (This can't really happen through URL traversal, but could occur with path traversal).
containeris an object with an attribute
__allow_access_to_unprotected_subobjects__, obtain this. It can be of three things:
- An integer or boolean
if set to a true value, allow access and return
True, otherwise raise
- A dictionary
Attempt to look up a truth value in this dictionary by using the accessed
nameas a key. If not found or false, raise
Unauthorized, otherwise allow access and return
True. If the name is not found, default to allowing access.
- A callable
Call it with the
valueas arguments, and use the return value to determine whether to allow access or raise
If there is no
If we did manage to get some roles from the container, we still check
__allow_access_to_unprotected_subobjects__as above, but only as a negative: we raise
Unauthorizedif access is not allowed, and continue security checking against the roles we found otherwise. In this case, we use the
container(probably a content object) as the
At this point, we have roles, and we know the container in theory allows access to the attribute that did not have its own security assertions. We set
valueto be the
containerso that we can check whether we are in fact allowed to access the container.
We can now check whether the user has the appropriate roles. This is essentially the same logic as in
checkPermission()above, although stated slightly differently:
ACCESS_PUBLIC) or contains
Anonymous, allow access immediately.
- If the execution context is something like a through-the-web Python script
owned by a user, we raise
Unauthorizedif the owner does not have any of the required roles.
- If the execution context has proxy roles, these are allowed to be used to validate access instead of the user's actual roles.
- Otherwise, call
user.allowed()to validate access and either return true or raise
The remainder of the logic in
validate() concerns the case where
verbose-security is enabled in
zope.conf. Various checks are made in
an attempt to raise
Unauthorized exceptions with meaningful descriptions
about where in the validation logic access was denied.
The mapping of permissions to roles can be managed persistently at any object by
setting the mangled permission attribute (see the description of
rolesForPermissionOn() above) to a list of roles as an instance variable.
The most basic API to do so is the class
AccessControl.Permission.Permission. This is a transient helper class
initialized with a (non-mangled) permission name (i.e. the first element in an
__ac_permissions__ tuple), a tuple of attributes the permission applies to
(i.e. the second element in an
__ac_permissions__ item) — referred to as
data — and an object where the permission is being managed.
setRole() on the
Permission class allow roles to be obtained and changed.
getRoles() will first attempt to get the mangled permission name attribute
and return its value.
If it is not set, it will fall back to looping over all the listed attributes
data) and obtaining the roles from the first one found, taking into account
the various ways in which
__roles__ can be stored. Note that an empty string
in the tuple of attributes means "check the object itself for a
__roles__ is a list, it is returned, though if it contains
the legacy role
Shared, this is removed first. The sentinel
ACCESS_PUBLIC) is turned into
['Manager', 'Anonymous']. If no roles are
set, the default return value is
['Manager'], though another default can be
supplied as the optional last parameter to
setRoles() will set the
mangled permission name as an instance variable on the object (or delete the
variable, if setting to an empty list of roles). Next, it will
ensure no other
<name>__roles__ instance variables have
been set (class variables are left alone, of course), so that the mangled
permission name attribute is the unambiguous statement of the permission-to-
Note that for both
setRoles(), the difference between
a tuple (don't acquire roles) and a list (do acquire) is significant, and
setRole() is used to manage a single role. It takes a role name and a
boolean to decide whether the role should be set or not. It simply builds the
appropriate list or tuple based on the current value of
getRoles() and then
In most cases, it is easier to use the API provided by
AccessControl.rolemanager.RoleManager to manipulate roles in a particular
context, rather than using
Permission directly. This class, usually via the
OFS.roles.RoleManager, is a mixing to most persistent objects
in Zope. It contains a number of relevant methods:
- Returns a list of permissions applicable to this class, but not defined on
this class directly, by walking the
__bases__of the class. (Note that this is not inheritance in the persistent acquisition sense!). If
allis set to a truth value, the permissions on this class are included as well. The return value is an
__ac_permissions__-like tuple of tuples. For inherited permissions, the attribute list of each permission entry will be an empty tuple.
- Returns the settings for a single permission or all permissions, returning a list of dicts. Used mainly by ZMI screens.
- Uses the
PermissionAPI to grant the role to the permissions passed in, and take it away from any other permissions where the role may be set.
- Uses the
PermissionAPI to set the roles lists for each of the passed-in permissions to a list (acquire), and for all other permissions to a tuple (don't acquire).
manage_permission(permission, roles=, acquire=0)
- Uses the
PermissionAPI to set roles for the given permission to either a tuple or list (it does not matter what type of sequence the
rolesparameter contains, the
acquireparameter is used), but only if the permission is known to this object.
- Uses the
PermissionAPI to get the permissions of the given role. Returns a list of dicts with keys
selected(set to either an empty string or the string
- The inverse of
permissionsOfRole(), returning a similar data structure.
- Returns either
CHECKEDor an empty string, depending on whether the roles sequence of the given permission is a list or tuple.
The use of the strings
SELECTED as booleans is an unfortunate
side-effect of these methods being used quite literally by ZMI templates.
The list of known (valid) roles in any context is set in the attribute
__ac_roles__. On the initialization of the application root during startup,
OFS.Application.AppInitializer, this is
made to include at least
base class sets it as a class variable with the value
('Manager', 'Owner', 'Anonymous', 'Authenticated').
AccessControl.rolemanager.RoleManager, the method
be used to obtain the list of valid roles in any given context. It will also
include roles from any parent objects referenced via a
User-defined roles can be set through the ZMI or the method
OFS.roles.RoleManager specialization, which simply manipulates the
__ac_roles__ tuple as an instance variable. There is also
delete roles. The method
userdefined_roles() on the base
AccessControl.rolemanager.RoleManager class will return a list of all roles
that were set as instance variables rather than class variables.
The global roles of a given user is determined by the
on the user object (see the description of the
allowed() method above).
ZODBRoleManager plugin for PAS stores a mapping of users and
roles persistently in the ZODB, though other implementations are possible, e.g.
querying an LDAP repository.
Users may also have local roles, granted in a particular container and its
children. These can be discovered for a given user most easily by calling the
getRolesInContext() function on a user object, which takes a context object
as a parameter.
Local roles are stored in the instance variable
__ac_local_roles__. This may
be a dictionary or a callable that returns a dictionary, containing a mapping of user (or
group) ids to local roles granted. The local role check is performed iteratively
by walking up the acquisition chain and checking the instances of bound methods,
until the root of the acquisition chain is reached.
The API to manage local role assignments in a given context is found in
AccessControl.rolemanager.RoleManager, through the following methods:
- Return a tuple of local roles, each represented as a tuple of user ids and a tuple of local roles for that user id. With PAS, this may also include group ids.
__ac_local_roles__to get a list of all users with the given local role.
__ac_local_roles__to get a tuple of all local roles for the given user id.
__ac_local_roles__to add the given roles to the given user id. Any existing roles are kept.
__ac_local_roles__to add the given roles to the given user id. Any existing roles are replaced.
- Remove all local roles for the given user ids.
On startup, at import time of
AccessControl.users, the function
readUserAccessFile() is called to look for a file called
access in the
INSTANCE_HOME (an environment variable) directory. If found, it reads
the first line and parses it to return a tuple
(name, password, domains,
If set, the module variable
emergency_user is set to an
UnrestrictedUser, a special type of user where the
always returns true. If not, it is set to a
acts in reverse and disallows everything.
The user folder implementations in
AccessControl and PAS make specific
checks for this user during authentication and permission validation to ensure
this user can always log in and has virtually any permission, with the exception