Events

Description

How to add event hooks to your Plone code to perform actions when something happens on a Plone site.

Introduction

This document briefly discusses event handling using the zope.event module. The Zope Component Architecture’s zope.event package is used to manage subscribeable events in Plone.

Some of the notable characteristics of the Plone event system are:

  • it is simple;
  • subscriber calling order is not modifiable — you cannot set the order in which event handlers are called;
  • events cannot be cancelled — all handlers will always get the event;
  • event handlers cannot have return values;
  • exceptions raised in an event handler will interrupt the request processing.

Registering an event handler

Plone events can be scoped:

  • globally (no scope)
  • per content type

Example: Register an event-handler on your contenttype’s creation

In your.product/your/product/configure.zcml insert:

<subscriber
    for=".interfaces.IMyContentTypeClass
         zope.lifecycleevent.IObjectCreatedEvent"
    handler=".your_python_file.your_method"
    />

The first line defines to which interface you want to bind the execution of your code, which means here, that the code will only be executed if the object is one of your contenttype’s. If you want this to be interface-agnostic, insert an asterix as a wildcard instead.

The second line defines the event on which this should happen, which is here ‘IObjectCreatedEvent’ – for Archetypes you should use ‘Products.Archetypes.interfaces.IObjectInitializedEvent’ instead. For more available possible events to be used as a trigger, see event handler documentation

The third line gives the path to the script that is supposed to be executed.

Create your.product/your/product/your_python_file.py and insert:

def your_method(object, event):

    # do sth with your created contenttype
For Dexterity-contenttype’s and additional ZOPE-Illumination see also:
event handler documentation

Subscribing using ZCML

Subscribing to a global event using ZCML.

<subscriber
    for="Products.PlonePAS.events.UserLoggedOutEvent"
    handler=".smartcard.clear_extra_cookies_on_logout"
    />

For this event, the Python code in smartcard.py would be:

def clear_extra_cookies_on_logout(event):
    # What event contains depends on the
    # triggerer of the event and event class
    request = event.object.REQUEST
    ...

Custom event example subscribing to all IMyEvents when fired by IMyObject:

<subscriber
    for=".interfaces.IMyObject
         .interfaces.IMyEvent"
    handler=".content.MyObject.myEventHandler"
    />

Life cycle events example:

<subscriber
    zcml:condition="installed zope.lifecycleevent"
    for=".interfaces.ISitsPatient
         zope.lifecycleevent.IObjectModifiedEvent"
    handler=".content.SitsPatient.objectModified"
    />

Subscribing using Python

The following subscription is valid through the process life cycle. In unit tests, it is important to clear test event handlers between the test steps.

Example:

import zope.component

def my_event_handler(context, event):
    """
    @param context: Zope object for which the event was fired. Usually this is a Plone content object.

    @param event: Subclass of event.
    """
    pass

gsm = zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager()
gsm.registerHandler(my_event_handler, (IMyObject,IMyEvent))

Firing an event

Use zope.event.notify() to fire event objects to their subscribers.

Example of how to fire an event in unit tests:

import zope.event
from plone.postpublicationhook.event import AfterPublicationEvent

event = AfterPublicationEvent(self.portal, self.portal.REQUEST)
zope.event.notify(event)

Event types

Creation events

Products.Archetypes.interfaces.IObjectInitializedEvent
is fired for an Archetypes-based object when it’s being initialised; i.e. when it’s being populated for the first time.
Products.Archetypes.interfaces.IWebDAVObjectInitializedEvent
is fired for an Archetypes-based object when it’s being initialised via WebDAV.
zope.lifecycleevent.IObjectCreatedEvent
is fired for all Zopeish objects when they are being created (they don’t necessarily need to be content objects) or being copied (IObjectCopiedEvent).

Warning

Archetypes and Zope 3 events might not be compatible with each other. Please see links below.

Other resources:

Modified events

Two different content event types are available and might work differently depending on your scenario:

Products.Archetypes.interfaces.IObjectEditedEvent
called for Archetypes-based objects that are not in the creation stage any more.

Note

Products.Archetypes.interfaces.IObjectEditedEvent is fired after reindexObject() is called. If you manipulate your content object in a handler for this event, you need to manually reindex new values, or the changes will not be reflected in the portal_catalog.

zope.lifecycleevent.IObjectModifiedEvent
called for creation-stage events as well, unlike the previous event type.
Products.Archetypes.interfaces.IWebDAVObjectEditedEvent
called for Archetypes-based objects when they are being edited via WebDAV.
Products.Archetypes.interfaces.IEditBegunEvent
called for Archetypes-based objects when an edit operation is begun.
Products.Archetypes.interfaces.IEditCancelledEvent
called for Archetypes-based objects when an edit operation is canceled.

Delete events

Delete events can be fired several times for the same object. Some delete event transactions are rolled back.

Copy events

zope.lifecycleevent.IObjectCopiedEvent
is triggered when an object is copied (will also fire IObjectCreatedEvent event code).

Workflow events

Products.DCWorkflow.interfaces.IBeforeTransitionEvent
is triggered before a workflow transition is executed.
Products.DCWorkflow.interfaces.IAfterTransitionEvent
is triggered after a workflow transition has been executed.

The DCWorkflow events are low-level events that can tell you a lot about the previous and current states.

Products.CMFCore.interfaces.IActionSucceededEvent
this is a higher level event that is more commonly used to react after a workflow action has completed.

Zope startup events

zope.processlifetime.IProcessStarting
is triggered after component registry has been loaded and Zope is starting up.
zope.processlifetime.IDatabaseOpened
is triggered after the main ZODB database has been opened.