Fields and widgets

Description

How to read, add, remove and create fields and widgets available for Archetypes content types.

Introduction

This document contains instructions how to manipulate Archetypes schema (data model for content items) and fields and widgets it consists of.

Schema is list of fields associated with a content type. Each field can belong to one schemata which corresponds to one Edit tab sub-tab in Plone user interface.

Field schemata is chosen by setting field’s schemata attribute.

Getting hold of schema objects

Archetypes based data model is defined as Schema object, which is a list of fields.

During application start-up

When your class is being constructed you can refer the schema simply in Python:

# Assume you have YourContentSchema object
print YourContentSchema.fields()

class SitsCountry(ATBTreeFolder):
        schema =YourContentSchema

print SitsCountry.schema.fields()

During HTTP request processing

You can access context schema object by using Schema() accessor.

Note

Run-time schema patching is possible, so Schema() output might differ what you put in to your content type during the construction.

Example:

schema = context.Schema()
print schema.fields()

Schema introspection

How to know what fields are available on content items.

Run-time introspection

You can get hold of content item schema and its fields as in the example below.

You can do this either in

Example:

for field in context.Schema().fields():
        print "Field:" + str(field) + " value:" + str(field.get(context))

Field can be also accessed by name:

field = context.Schema()["yourfieldname"]

See

Field name

Field exposes its name through getName() attribute:

field = context.Schema()["yourfieldname"]
assert field.getName() == "yourfieldname"

Accessing Archetypes field value

Accessor method

Each field has accessor method. Accessor method is

  • In your content type class

  • Automatically generated if you don’t give it manually

  • Has name get + schema field name with first letter uppercase. E.g. yourfield has accessor method context.getYourfield() There are a few exceptions to this rule, for fields that correspond to Dublin Core metadata. To conform to the Dublin Core specification, the accessor method for the title field is Title() and Description() for the description field.

Raw access

Archetypes has two kinds of access methods:

  • normal, getSomething(), which filters output;

  • raw, the so-called edit accessor, getRawSomething() which does not filter output.

If you use direct attribute access, i.e. obj.something you can get a BaseUnit object. BaseUnit is an encapsulation of raw data for long text or file. It contains information about mimetype, filename, encoding. To get the raw value of a BaseUnit object you can use the getRaw method, or more simply str(baseunit) (but take care that you don’t mess up the encoding).

Indirect access

You can use field.get(context) to read values of fields indirectly, without knowing the accessor method.

This example shows how to read and duplicate all values of lc object to nc:

from Products.Archetypes import public as atapi


nc = createObjectSomehow()

# List of field names which we cannot copy
do_not_copy = ["id"]

# Duplicate field data from one object to another
for field in lc.Schema().fields():
    name = field.getName()

    # ComputedFields are handled specially,
    # and UID also
    if not isinstance(field, atapi.ComputedField) and name not in do_not_copy:
        value = field.getRaw(lc)
        newfield = nc.Schema()[name]
        newfield.set(nc, value)

# Mark creation flag to be set
nc.processForm()

Validating objects

Example for nc AT object:

errors = {}
nc.Schema().validate(nc, None, errors, True, True)
if errors:
    assert not errors, "Got errors:" + str(errors)

Checking permissions

field.writable() provides a short-cut whether the currently logged in user can change the field value.

Example:

field = context.Schema()["phone_number"]
assert field.writable(), "Cannot set phone number"

There is also a verbose debugging version which will print the reason to log if the writable condition is not effective:

field = context.Schema()["phone_number"]
assert field.writable(debug=True), "Cannot set phone number"

Modifying all fields in schema

You might want to modify all schema fields based on some criteria.

Example how to hide all metadata fields:

for f in ExperienceEducatorSchema.filterFields(isMetadata=True): f.widget.visible = { "edit" : "invisible" }

Reordering fields

See moveField() in Schema/__init__.py.

Example

ProductCardFolderSchema = MountPointSchema.copy() + atapi.Schema((

    # -*- Your Archetypes field definitions here ... -*-
    atapi.StringField(
        'pageTitle',
        stxxxge=atapi.AnnotationStxxxge(),
        widget=atapi.StringWidget(
            label=_(u"Page title"),
            description=_(u"Title shown on the page text if differs from the navigation title"),
        ),
        default=""
    ),

   ...


))


schemata.finalizeATCTSchema(
    ProductCardFolderSchema,
    folderish=True,
    moveDiscussion=False
)

# Reorder schema fields to the final order,
# show special pageTitle field after actual Title field
ProductCardFolderSchema.moveField("pageTitle", after="title")

Hiding widgets

  • You should not remove core Plone fields (Title, Description) as they are used by Plone internally e.g. in the navigation tree

  • But you can override their accessor functions Title() and Description()

  • You can also hide the widgets

The recommended approach is to hide the widgets, then update the field contents when the relevant data is update. E.g. you can generate title value from fields firstname and lastname.

Below is an example which uses custom JSON field as input, and then sets title and description based on it:

"""Definition of the XXX Researcher content type
"""

import logging
import json # py2.6

from zope.interface import implements, directlyProvides, alsoProvides

from five import grok

from Products.Archetypes.interfaces import IObjectEditedEvent
from Products.Archetypes import atapi
from Products.ATContentTypes.content import folder
from Products.ATContentTypes.content import schemata

from xxx.objects import objectsMessageFactory as _
from xxx.objects.interfaces import IXXXResearcher
from xxx.objects.config import PROJECTNAME

XXXResearcherSchema = folder.ATFolderSchema.copy() + atapi.Schema((

    # -*- Your Archetypes field definitions here ... -*-

    # Stores XXX entry as JSON string
    atapi.TextField("XXXData",
                    required =  True,
                    widget=atapi.StringWidget(
                                label="XXX source entry",
                                description="Start typing person's name"
                                )),

))

XXXResearcherSchema["title"].widget.visible = {"edit": "invisible" }
XXXResearcherSchema["description"].widget.visible = {"edit": "invisible" }

# Set stxxxge on fields copied from ATFolderSchema, making sure
# they work well with the python bridge properties.

schemata.finalizeATCTSchema(
    XXXResearcherSchema,
    folderish=True,
    moveDiscussion=False
)

class XXXResearcher(folder.ATFolder):
    """A Researcher synchronized from XXX.

    This content will have all



    """
    implements(IXXXResearcher)

    meta_type = "XXXResearcher"
    schema = XXXResearcherSchema

    # -*- Your ATSchema to Python Property Bridges Here ... -*-

    def refreshXXXData(self):
        """
        Performs collective.mountpoint synchronization for one object.
        """
        #synchronize_item(self, logging.WARNING)

    def updateXXX(self, json):
        """
        @param json: JSON payload as a string
        """
        data = self.parseXXXData(json)

        # Set this core Plone fields to actual values,
        # so that we surely co-operate with old legacy code

        title = self.getTitleFromData(data)
        desc = self.getDescriptionFromData(data)

        self.setTitle(title)
        self.setDescription(desc)

    def parseXXXData(self, jsonData):
        """
        @return Python dict
        """
        return json.loads(jsonData)

    def getParsedXXXData(self):
        """
        Return XXX JSON data parsed to Python object.
        """

        data = self.getXXXData()
        if data == "" or data is None:
            return None

        return self.parseXXXData(data)

    def getTitleFromData(self, data):
        """
        Use lastname + surname from FOAF data as the connt title.
        """

        title = data.get(u"foaf_name", None)

        if title == "" or title is None:
            # Title must have something so that the users
            # can click this item in list...
            title = "(unnamed)"

        # foaf_name is actually list of values, so we need to merge them
        title = " ".join(title)

        return title

    def getDescriptionFromData(self, data):
        """ Extract content item description from data blob """

        desc = data.get(u"dc_description", None)

        if desc is None or len(desc) == 0:
            # Decription is not required, we get omit it
            return None

        # dc_description is actually a list of description
        # let's merge them to string here
        desc = " ".join(desc)

        return desc


atapi.registerType(XXXResearcher, PROJECTNAME)

@grok.subscribe(XXXResearcher, IObjectEditedEvent)
def object_edited(context, event):
    """
    Event handler which will update title + description
    values every time the object has been edited.

    @param context: Object for which the event was fired
    """

    # Read JSON data entry which user entered on the form
    json = context.getXXXData()

    if json != None:

        # Update the core fields to reflect changes
        # in JSON data
        context.updateXXX(json)

        # Reflect object changes back to the portal catalog
        # Note that we are running reindexObject()
        # here again... edit itself runs it and
        # we could do some optimization here
        context.reindexObject()

Rendering widget

Archetypes is hardwired to render widgets from viewless TAL page templates.

Example how to render widget for field ‘maintext’:

<tal:fields tal:define="field_macro here/widgets/field/macros/view;
                        field python:here.Schema()['maintext']">

  <tal:if_visible define="mode string:view;
                          visState python:field.widget.isVisible(here, mode);
                          visCondition python:field.widget.testCondition(context.aq_inner.aq_parent, portal, context);"
                  condition="python:visState == 'visible' and visCondition">
    <metal:use_field use-macro="field_macro" />
  </tal:if_visible>
</tal:fields>

Creating your own Field

Here is an example how to create a custom field based on TextField.

Example (mfabrik/rstpage/archetypes/fields.py):

from Products.Archetypes import public as atapi
from Products.Archetypes.Field import TextField, ObjectField, encode, decode, registerField

from mfabrik.rstpage.transform import transform_rst_to_html

class RSTField(atapi.TextField):
    """ """

    def _getCooked(self, instance, text):
        """ Perform reST to HTML transformation for the field cotent.

        """
        html, errors = transform_rst_to_html(text)
        return html

    def get(self, instance, **kwargs):
        """ Field accessor.

        Define view mode accessor for the widget.

        @param instance: Archetypes content item instance

        @param kwargs: Arbitrary parameters passed to the field getter
        """

        # Read the stored field value from the instance
        text = ObjectField.get(self, instance, **kwargs)

        # raw = edit mode, get reST source in that case
        raw = kwargs.get("raw", False)

        if raw:
            # Return reST source
            return text
        else:
            # Return HTML for viewing
            return self._getCooked(instance, text)


registerField(RSTField,
              title='Restructured Text field',
              description=('Edit HTML as reST source'))

Automatically generating description based on body text

Below is a through-the-web (TTW) Python Script which you can drop into through the Management Interface.

Use case: People are lazy to write descriptions (as in Dublin Core metadata). You can generate some kind of description by taking the few first sentences of the text.

This is not perfect, but this is way better than empty description.

This script will provide one-time operation to automatically generate content item descriptions based on their body text by taking the first three sentences.

The script will provide logging output to standard Plone log (var/log and stdout if Plone is run in debug mode).

Example code:

def create_automatic_description(content, text_field_name="text"):
    """ Creates an automatic description from HTML body by taking three first sentences.

    Takes the body text

    @param content: Any Plone contentish item (they all have description)

    @param text_field_name: Which schema field is used to supply the body text (may very depending on the content type)
    """

    # Body is Archetype "text" field in schema by default.
    # Accessor can take the desired format as a mimetype parameter.
    # The line below should trigger conversion from text/html -> text/plain automatically using portal_transforms
    field = content.Schema()[text_field_name]

    # Returns a Python method which you can call to get field's
    # for a certain content type. This is also security aware
    # and does not breach field-level security provided by Archetypes
    accessor = field.getAccessor(content)

    # body is UTF-8
    body = accessor(mimetype="text/plain")

    # Now let's take three first sentences or the whole content of body
    sentences = body.split(".")

    if len(sentences) > 3:
       intro = ".".join(sentences[0:3])
       intro += "." # Don't forget closing the last sentence
    else:
       # Body text is shorter than 3 sentences
       intro = body

    content.setDescription(intro)


# context is the reference of the folder where this script is run
for id, item in context.contentItems():
     # Iterate through all content items (this ignores Zope objects like this script itself)

     # Use RestrictedPython safe logging.
     # plone_log() method is permission aware and available on any contentish object
     # so we can safely use it from through-the-web scripts
     context.plone_log("Fixing:" + id)

     # Check that the description has never been saved (None)
     # or it is empty, so we do not override a description someone has
     # set before automatically or manually
     desc = context.Description() # All Archetypes accessor method, returns UTF-8 encoded string

     if desc is None or desc.strip() == "":
          # We use the HTML of field called "text" to generate the description
          create_automatic_description(item, "text")

# This will be printed in the browser when the script completes successfully
return "OK"

See also

Vocabularies

Archetypes has its own vocabulary infrastructure which is not compatible with zope.schema vocabularies.

Rendering single field

Example:

<metal:fieldMacro use-macro="python:context.widget(field.getName(), mode='edit')" />

Hiding widgets conditionally

AT widgets have condition expression.

Example how to set a condition for multiple widgets to call a BrowserView to ask whether the widget should be visible or not:

for field in ResearcherSchema.values():
    # setCondition() is in Products.Archetypes.Widget
    # possible expression variables are_ object, portal, folder.
    field.widget.setCondition("python:object.restrictedTraverse('@@msd_widget_condition')('" + field.getName() + "')")

The related view with some sample code:

class WidgetCondition(BrowserView):
    """
    This is referred in msd.researcher schema conditions field.
    """

    def __call__(self, fieldName):
        """

        """
        settings = getResearcherSettings(self.context)
        customization = settings.getFieldCustomization(fieldName, "visible")
        if customization is not None:
            return customization

        # Default is visible
        return True

Dynamic field definitions

You can override Schema() and Schemata() methods in your content type class to poke the schema per HTTP request access basis.

Example:

def Schema(self):
    """ Overrides field definitions in fly.

    """

    # XXX: Cache this method?
    from Acquisition import ImplicitAcquisitionWrapper
    from Products.Archetypes.interfaces import ISchema

    # Create modifiable copy of schema
    # See Products.Archetypes.BaseObject
    schema = ISchema(self)
    schema = schema.copy()
    schema = ImplicitAcquisitionWrapper(schema, self)

    settings = self.getResearchSettings()

    for row in settings.getFieldCustomizations():
        name = row.get("fieldName", None)
        vocab = row.get("vocabToUse", None)

        field = schema.get(name, None)

        if field and vocab and hasattr(field, "vocabulary"):
            # Modify field copy ion

            displayList = settings.getVocabulary(vocab)
            if displayList is not None:
                field.vocabulary = displayList

    return schema