WebDAV and other file representations

Adding support for WebDAV and accessing and modifying a content object using file-like operations

Zope supports WebDAV, a protocol that allows content objects to be viewed, modified, copied, renamed, moved and deleted as if they were files on the filesystem. WebDAV is also used to support saving to remote locations from various desktop programs. In addition, WebDAV powers the External Editor product, which allows users to launch a desktop program from within Plone to edit a content object.

To configure a WebDAV server, you can add the following option to the [instance] section of your buildout.cfg and re-run buildout.

webdav-address = 9800

See the documentation for plone.recipe.zope2instance for details. When Zope is started, you should now be able to mount it as a WebDAV server on the given port.

Most operating systems support mounting WebDAV servers as folders. Unfortunately, not all WebDAV implementations are very good. Dexterity content should work with Windows Web Folders * and well-behaved clients such as Novell NetDrive.

*

open Internet Explorer, go to File | Open, type in a WebDAV address, e.g. http://localhost:9800, and then select Open as web folder before hitting OK

On Mac OS X, the Finder claims to support WebDAV, but the implementation is so flakey that it is just as likely to crash Mac OS X as it is to let you browse files and folders. Use a dedicated WebDAV client instead, such as Cyberduck.

Default WebDAV behaviour

By default, Dexterity content can be downloaded and uploaded using a text format based on RFC 2822, the same standard used to encode email messages. Most fields are encoded in headers, whilst the field marked as “primary” will be contained in the body of the message. If there is more than one primary field, a multi-part message is created.

A field can be marked as “primary” using the primary() directive from plone.supermodel. For example:

from plone.autoform import directives as form
from plone.supermodel import directives

class ISession(model.Schema):
    """A conference session. Sessions are managed inside Programs.
    """

    title = schema.TextLine(
            title=_(u"Title"),
            description=_(u"Session title"),
        )

    description = schema.Text(
            title=_(u"Session summary"),
        )

    directives.primary('details')
    details = RichText(
            title=_(u"Session details"),
            required=False
        )

    form.widget(presenter=AutocompleteFieldWidget)
    presenter = RelationChoice(
            title=_(u"Presenter"),
            source=ObjPathSourceBinder(object_provides=IPresenter.__identifier__),
            required=False,
        )

    form.write_permission(track='example.conference.ModifyTrack')
    track = schema.Choice(
            title=_(u"Track"),
            source=possibleTracks,
            required=False,
        )

This will actually apply the IPrimaryField marker interface from the plone.rfc822 package to the given field(s).

A WebDAV download of this content item will by default look like this:

title: Test session
description: First session
presenter: 713399904
track: Administrators
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/html; charset="utf-8"
Portal-Type: example.conference.session

<p>Details <b>here</b></p>

Notice how most fields are encoded as header strings. The presenter relation field stores a number, which is the integer id of the target object. Note that this id is generated when the content object is created, and so is unlikely to be valid on a different site. The details field, which we marked as primary, is encoded in the body of the message.

It is also possible to upload such a file to create a new session. In order to do that, the content_type_registry tool needs to be configured with a predicate that can detect the type of content from the uploaded file and instantiate the correct type of object. Such predicates could be based on an extension or a filename pattern. Below, we will see a different approach that uses a custom “file factory” for the containing Program type.

Containers

Container objects will be shown as collections (WebDAV-speak for folders) for WebDAV purposes. This allows the WebDAV client to open the container and list its contents. However, representing containers as collections makes it impossible to access the data contained in the various fields of the content object.

To allow access to this information, a pseudo-file called _data will be exposed inside a Dexterity container. This file can be read and written like any other, to access or modify the container’s data. It cannot be copied, moved, renamed or deleted: those operations should be performed on the container itself.

Customising WebDAV behaviour

There are several ways in which you can influence the WebDAV behaviour of your type.

  • If you are happy with the RFC 2822 format, you can provide your own plone.rfc822.interfaces.IFieldMarshaler adapters to provide alternate serialisations and parsers for fields. See the plone.rfc822 documentation for details.

  • If you want to use a different file representation, you can provide your own IRawReadFile and IRawWriteFile adapters. For example, if you have a content object that stores binary data, you could return this data directly, with an appropriate MIME type, to allow it to be edited in a desktop program (e.g. an image editor if the MIME type is image/jpeg). The file plone.dexterity.filerepresentation contains two base classes, ReadFileBase and WriteFileBase, which you may be able to use to make it easier to implement these interfaces.

  • If you want to control how content objects are created when a new file or directory is dropped into a particular type of container, you can provide your own IFileFactory or IDirectoryFactory adapters. See plone.dexterity.filerepresentation for the default implementations.

As an example, let’s register a custom IFileFactory adapter for the IProgram type. This adapter will not rely on the content_type_registry tool to determine which type to construct, but will instead create a Session object, since that is the only type that is allowed inside a Program container.

The code, in program.py, looks like this:

from zope.component import adapter
from zope.component import createObject
from zope.interface import implementer
from zope.event import notify
from zope.lifecycleevent import ObjectCreatedEvent
from zope.filerepresentation.interfaces import IFileFactory

@implementer(IFileFactory)
@adapter(IProgram)
class ProgramFileFactory(object):
    """Custom file factory for programs, which always creates a Session.
    """

    def __init__(self, context)
        self.context = context

    def __call__(self, name, contentType, data):
        session = createObject('example.conference.session', id=name)
        notify(ObjectCreatedEvent(session))
        return session

We need to register the adapter in configure.zcml:

<adapter factory=".program.ProgramFileFactory" />

This adapter overrides the DefaultFileFactory found in plone.dexterity.filerepresentation. It creates an object of the designated type, fires an IObjectModifiedEvent and then returns the object, which will then be populated with data from the uploaded file.

To test this, you could write a text file like the one shown above in a text editor and save it on your desktop, then drag it into the folder in your WebDAV client representing a Program.

Here is a simple automated integration test for the same component:

def test_file_factory(self):
    self.folder.invokeFactory('example.conference.program', 'p1')
    p1 = self.folder['p1']
    fileFactory = IFileFactory(p1)
    newObject = fileFactory('new-session', 'text/plain', 'dummy')
    self.assertTrue(ISession.providedBy(newObject))

How it all works

The rest of this section describes in some detail how the various WebDAV related components interact in Zope 2, CMF and Dexterity. This may be helpful if you are trying to customise or debug WebDAV behaviour.

Background

Basic WebDAV support can be found in the webdav package. This defines two base classes, webdav.Resource.Resource and webdav.Collection.Collection. Collection extends Resource. These are mixed into item and container content objects, respectively.

The webdav package also defines the NullResource object. A NullResource is a kind of placeholder, which supports the HTTP verbs HEAD, PUT, and MKCOL.

Contents based on ObjectManager (including those in Dexterity) will return a NullResource if they cannot find the requested object and the request is a WebDAV request.

The zope.filerepresentation package defines a number of interfaces which are intended to help manage file representations of content objects. Dexterity uses these interfaces to allow the exact file read and write operations to be overridden without subclassing.

GET

A GET request retrieves headers and body.

Zope calls manage_DAVget() to retrieve the body. The default implementation calls manage_FTPget().

In Dexterity, manage_FTPget() adapts self to IRawReadFile and uses its mimeType and encoding properties to set the Content-Type header, and its size() method to set Content-Length.

If the IRawReadFile adapter is also an IStreamIterator, it will be returned for the publisher to consume directly. This provides for efficient serving of large files, although it does require that the file can be read in its entirety with the ZODB connection closed. Dexterity solves this problem by writing the file content to a temporary file on the server.

If the IRawReadFile adapter is not a stream iterator, its contents are returned as a string, by calling its read() method. Note that this loads the entire file contents into memory on the server.

The default IRawReadFile implementation for Dexterity content returns an RFC 2822-style message document. Most fields on the object and any enabled behaviours will be turned into UTF-8 encoded headers. The primary field, if any, will be returned in the body, also most likely encoded as an UTF-8 encoded string. Binary data may be base64-encoded instead.

A type which wishes to override this behaviour can provide its own adapter. For example, an image type could return the raw image data.

PUT

A PUT request reads the body of a request and uses it to update a resource that already exists, or to create a new object.

By default Resource.PUT() fails with “405 Method Not Allowed”. That is, it is not by default possible to PUT to a resource that already exists. The same is true of Collection.PUT().

In Dexterity, the PUT() method is overridden to adapt self to zope.filerepresentation.IRawWriteFile, and call its write() method one or more times, writing the contents of the request body, before calling close(). The mimeType and encoding properties will also be set based on the value of the Content-Type header, if available.

The default implementation of IRawWriteFile for Dexterity objects assumes the input is an RFC 2822 style message document. It will read header values and use them to set fields on the object or in behaviours, and similarly read the body and update the corresponding primary field.

NullResource.PUT() is responsible for creating a new content object and initialising it (recall that a NullResource may be returned if a WebDAV request attempts to traverse to an object which does not exist). It sniffs the content type and body from the request, and then looks for the PUT_factory() method on the parent folder.

In Dexterity, PUT_factory() is implemented to look up an IFileFactory adapter on self and use it to create the empty file. The default implementation will use the content_type_registry tool to determine a type name for the request (e.g. based on its extension or MIME type), and then construct an instance of that type.

Once an instance has been constructed, the object will be initialised by calling its PUT() method, as above.

Note that when content is created via WebDAV, an IObjectCreatedEvent will be fired from the IFileFactory adapter, just after the object has been constructed. At this point, none of its values will be set. Subsequently, at the end of the PUT() method, an IObjectModifiedEvent will be fired. This differs from the event sequence of an object created through the web. Here, only an IObjectCreatedEvent is fired, and only after the object has been fully initialised.

DELETE

A DELETE request instructs the WebDAV server to delete a resource.

Resource.DELETE() calls manage_delObjects() on the parent folder to delete an object.

Collection.DELETE() does the same, but checks for write locks of all children of the collection, recursively, before allowing the delete.

PROPFIND

A PROPFIND request returns all or a set of WebDAV properties. WebDAV properties are metadata used to describe an object, such as the last modified time or the author.

Resource.PROPFIND() parses the request and then looks for a propertysheets attribute on self.

If an allprop request is received, it calls dav__allprop(), if available, on each property sheet. This method returns a list of name/value pairs in the correct WebDAV XML encoding, plus a status.

If a propnames request is received, it calls dav__propnames(), if available, on each property sheet. This method returns a list of property names in the correct WebDAV XML encoding, plus a status.

If a propstat request is received, it calls dav__propstats(), if available, on each property sheet, for each requested property. This method returns a property name/value pair in the correct WebDAV XML encoding, plus a status.

The PropertyManager mixin class defines the propertysheets variable to be an instance of DefaultPropertySheets. This in turn has two property sheets: default, a DefaultProperties instance; and webdav, a DAVProperties instance.

The DefaultProperties instance contains the main property sheet. This typically has a title property, for example.

DAVProperties will provides various core WebDAV properties. It defines a number of read-only properties: creationdate, displayname, resourcetype, getcontenttype, getcontentlength, source, supportedlock, and lockdiscovery. These in turn are delegated to methods prefixed with dav__, so e.g. reading the creationdate property calls dav__creationdate() on the property sheet instance. These methods in turn return values based on the property manager instance (i.e. the content object). In particular:

creationdate

returns a fixed date (January 1st, 1970).

displayname

returns the value of the title_or_id() method.

resourcetype

returns an empty string or <n:collection/>.

getlastmodified

returns the ZODB modification time.

getcontenttype

delegates to the content_type() method, falling back on the default_content_type() method. In Dexterity, content_type() is implemented to look up the IRawReadFile adapter on the context and return the value of its mimeType property.

getcontentlength

delegates to the get_size() method (which is also used for the “size” column in Plone folder listings). In Dexterity, this looks up a zope.size.interfaces.ISized adapter on the object and calls sizeForSorting(). If this returns a unit of 'bytes', the value portion is used. Otherwise, a size of 0 is returned.

source

returns a link to /document_src, if that attribute exists.

supportedlock

indicates whether IWriteLock is supported by the content item.

lockdiscovery

returns information about any active locks.

Other properties in this and any other property sheets are returned as stored when requested.

If the PROPFIND request specifies a depth of 1 or infinity (i.e. the client wants properties for items in a collection), the process is repeated for all items returned by the listDAVObjects() methods, which by default returns all contained items via the objectValues() method.

PROPPATCH

A PROPPATCH request is used to update the properties on an existing object.

Resource.PROPPATCH() deals with the same types of properties from property sheets as PROPFIND(). It uses the PropertySheet API to add or update properties as appropriate.

MKCOL

A MKCOL request is used to create a new collection resource, i.e. create a new folder.

Resource.MKCOL() raises “405 Method Not Allowed”, because the resource already exists (remember that in WebDAV, the MKCOL request, like a PUT for a new resource, is sent with a location that specifies the desired new resource location, not the location of the parent object).

NullResource.MKCOL() handles the valid case where a MKCOL request has been sent to a new resource. After checking that the resource does not already exist, that the parent is indeed a collection (folderish item), and that the parent is not locked, it calls the MKCOL_handler() method on the parent folder.

In Dexterity, the MKCOL()_handler is overridden to adapt self to an IDirectoryFactory from zope.filerepresentation and use this to create a directory. The default implementation simply calls manage_addFolder() on the parent. This will create an instance of the Folder type.

COPY

A COPY request is used to copy a resource.

Resource.COPY() implements this operation using the standard Zope content object copy semantics.

MOVE

A MOVE request is used to relocate or rename a resource.

Resource.MOVE() implements this operation using the standard Zope content-object move semantics.

LOCK

A LOCK request is used to lock a content object.

All relevant WebDAV methods in the webdav package are lock aware. That is, they check for locks before attempting any operation that would violate a lock.

Also note that plone.locking uses the lock implementation from the webdav package by default.

Resource.LOCK() implements locking and lock refresh support.

NullResource.LOCK() implements locking on a NullResource. In effect, this means locking the name of the non-existent resource. When a NullResource is locked, it is temporarily turned into a LockNullResource object, which is a persistent object set onto the parent (remember that a NullResource is a transient object returned when a child object cannot be found in a WebDAV request).

UNLOCK

An UNLOCK request is used to unlock a locked object.

Resource.UNLOCK() handles unlock requests.

LockNullResource.UNLOCK() handles unlocking of a LockNullResource. This deletes the LockNullResource object from the parent container.

Fields on container objects

When browsing content via WebDAV, a container object (folderish item) will appear as a folder. Most likely, this object will also have content in the form of schema fields. To make this accessible, Dexterity containers expose a pseudo-file with the name _data, by injecting this into the return value of listDAVObjects() and adding a special traversal hook to allow its contents to be retrieved.

This file supports HEAD, GET, PUT, LOCK, UNLOCK, PROPFIND and PROPPATCH requests (an error will be raised if the user attempts to rename, copy, move or delete it). These operate on the container object, obviously. For example, when the data object is updated via a PUT request, the PUT() method on the container is called, by default delegating to an IRawWriteFile adapter on the container.