Custom views

Configuring custom views and using display forms

Simple views

Creating basic views

So far, our types have used the default views. They use the display widgets from z3c.form, much like the add and edit forms use the edit widgets. This is functional, but not very attractive. Most types will need one or more custom view templates.

Dexterity types are no different from any other content type in Plone. You can register a view for your schema interface, and it will be available on your type. If the view is named view, it will be the default view, at least if you use the standard FTI configuration. This is because the FTI’s default_view property is set to view, and view is in the list of view_methods.

First create a view registration with a <browser:page /> ZCML directive in your `configure.zcml file:

<configure
    xmlns="http://namespaces.zope.org/zope"
    xmlns:browser="http://namespaces.zope.org/browser">

  ...

  <browser:page
      name="view"
      for="example.conference.program.IProgram"
      class="example.conference.program.ProgramView"
      template="templates/programview.pt"
      permission="zope2.View"
      />

</configure>

Secondly add a browser view in program.py as follows:

from Acquisition import aq_inner
from example.conference.session import ISession
from plone import api
from Products.Five import BrowserView


class ProgramView(BrowserView):

    def sessions(self):
        """Return a catalog search result of sessions to show."""

        context = aq_inner(self.context)
        catalog = api.portal.get_tool(name='portal_catalog')

        return catalog(
            object_provides=ISession.__identifier__,
            path='/'.join(context.getPhysicalPath()),
            sort_on='sortable_title')

We have added sessions, a helper method which will be used in the view.

You can add any methods to the view. They will be available to the template via the view variable. The content object is available via context.

Finaly add a template in templates/programview.pt:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"
      xmlns:tal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/tal"
      xmlns:metal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/metal"
      xmlns:i18n="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/i18n"
      lang="en"
      metal:use-macro="context/main_template/macros/master"
      i18n:domain="example.conference">
<body>

<metal:main fill-slot="main">
    <tal:main-macro metal:define-macro="main"
        tal:define="toLocalizedTime nocall:context/@@plone/toLocalizedTime">

        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.abovecontenttitle" />

        <h1 class="documentFirstHeading" tal:content="context/title" />

        <div class="discreet">
            <tal:block condition="context/start">
                <span i18n:translate="label_from">From:</span>
                <span tal:content="python:context.start.strftime('%x %X')" />
            </tal:block>
            <tal:block condition="context/end">
                <span i18n:translate="label_to">To:</span>
                <span tal:content="python:context.end.strftime('%x %X')" />
            </tal:block>
        </div>

        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.belowcontenttitle" />

        <p class="documentDescription" tal:content="context/description" />

        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.abovecontentbody" />

        <div tal:content="structure context/details/output" />

        <h2 i18n:translate="heading_sessions">Sessions</h2>
        <dl>
            <tal:block repeat="session view/sessions">
                <dt>
                    <a tal:attributes="href session/getURL"
                       tal:content="session/Title" />
                </dt>
                <dd tal:content="session/Description" />
            </tal:block>
        </dl>

        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.belowcontentbody" />

    </tal:main-macro>
</metal:main>

</body>
</html>

For the most part, this template outputs the values of the various fields, using the sessions() method on the view to obtain the sessions contained within the program.

Note

Notice how the details RichText field is output as tal:content="structure context/details/output". The structure keyword ensures that the rendered HTML is not escaped. The extra traversal to details/output is necessary because the RichText field actually stores a RichTextValue object that contains not only the raw text as entered by the user, but also a MIME type (e.g. text/html) and the rendered output text. RichText fields are covered in more detail later in this manual.

The view for Presenter is even simpler:

<configure
    xmlns="http://namespaces.zope.org/zope"
    xmlns:browser="http://namespaces.zope.org/browser">

    ...

    <browser:page
        name="view"
        for="example.conference.program.IPresenter"
        template="templates/presenterview.pt"
        permission="zope2.View"
        />

</configure>

The template, in templates/presenterview.pt, is similar to the previous template:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"
      xmlns:tal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/tal"
      xmlns:metal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/metal"
      xmlns:i18n="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/i18n"
      lang="en"
      metal:use-macro="context/main_template/macros/master"
      i18n:domain="example.conference">
<body>

<metal:main fill-slot="main">
    <tal:main-macro metal:define-macro="main">

        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.abovecontenttitle" />

        <h1 class="documentFirstHeading" tal:content="context/title" />

        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.belowcontenttitle" />

        <p class="documentDescription" tal:content="context/description" />

        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.abovecontentbody" />

        <div tal:content="structure context/bio/output" />

        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.belowcontentbody" />

    </tal:main-macro>
</metal:main>

</body>
</html>

Obviously, these views are very basic. Much more interesting views could be created by putting a little more work into the templates.

You should also realise that you can create any type of view using this technique. Your view does not have to be related to a particular content type, even. You could set the context to Interface, for example, to make a view that’s available on all types.

Display view

Using display widgets in your views

In the previous section, we created a browser view. This kind of view is the most common. Sometimes we want to make use of the widgets and information in the type’s schema more directly. For example to invoke transforms or re-use more complex HTML.

To do this, you can use a display view. This is really just a view base class that knows about the schema of a type. We will use an example in session.py, with a template in templates/sessionview.pt.

Note

Display view involve the same type of overhead as add- and edit-forms. If you have complex content type with many behaviors, fieldsets and widget hints, you may notice a slow-down. This can be a problem on high volume sites.

The new view class is pretty much the same as before, except that we derive from plone.dexterity.browser.view.DefaultView:

<configure
    xmlns="http://namespaces.zope.org/zope"
    xmlns:browser="http://namespaces.zope.org/browser">

    ...

    <browser:page
        name="view"
        for="example.conference.program.ISession"
        class="example.conference.session.SessionView"
        template="templates/sessionview.pt"
        permission="zope2.View"
        />

</configure>
from plone.dexterity.browser.view import DefaultView

class SessionView(DefaultView):
    pass

This gives our view a few extra properties that we can use in the template:

view.w
a dictionary of all the display widgets, keyed by field names. For fields provided by behaviors, that is usually prefixed with the behavior interface name (IBehaviorInterface.field_name). For the default schema, unqualified names apply.
view.widgets
contains a list of widgets in schema order for the default fieldset.
view.groups
contains a list of fieldsets in fieldset order.
view.fieldsets
contains a dictionary mapping fieldset name to fieldset.
widgets
On a fieldset (group), you can access a widgets list to get widgets in that fieldset.

The w dict is the most commonly used.

The templates/sessionview.pt template contains the following:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"
      xmlns:tal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/tal"
      xmlns:metal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/metal"
      xmlns:i18n="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/i18n"
      lang="en"
      metal:use-macro="context/main_template/macros/master"
      i18n:domain="example.conference">
<body>

<metal:main fill-slot="main">
    <tal:main-macro metal:define-macro="main">
        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.abovecontenttitle" />
        <h1 class="documentFirstHeading" tal:content="context/title" />
        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.belowcontenttitle" />
        <p class="documentDescription" tal:content="context/description" />
        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.abovecontentbody" />
        <div tal:content="structure view/w/details/render" />
        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.belowcontentbody" />
    </tal:main-macro>
</metal:main>

</body>
</html>

Notice how we use expressions like view/w/details/render (where details is the field name) to get the rendering of a widget. Other properties include __name__, the field name, and label, the field title.