This manual will teach you how to build content types using the Dexterity system.
If you have decided that Dexterity is for you, and you are a programmer and comfortable working on the filesystem, then this manual is a good place to start.
This manual will cover:
- Some basic design techniques for solving problems with content types in Plone
- Getting a Dexterity development environment set up
- Creating a package to house your types
- Building a custom type based on a schema
- Creating custom views and forms for your type
- Advanced customisation, including workflow and security
- Testing your types
- A quick reference to common fields, widgets and APIs
Why was Dexterity created?¶
Dexterity was created to serve two audiences: Administrators/integrators, and developers.
For administrators and integrators, Dexterity offers:
- the ability to create new content types through-the-web
- the ability to switch on/off various aspects (called “behaviors”) on a per-type basis
- improved collaboration between integrators (who may define a type’s schema, say) and programmers (who may provide re-usable behaviors that the administrator can plug in).
For developers, Dexterity promises:
- the ability to create content types more quickly and easily, and with less boilerplate and repetition, than what is possible with Archetypes or plain CMF types
- content objects with a smaller runtime footprint, to improve performance
- types that use the now-standard zope.interface/zope.schema style of schema, and more broadly support modern idioms that sit a little awkardly with Archetypes and its ilk
How is Dexterity different from Archetypes¶
Dexterity is an alternative to Archetypes, Plone’s venerable content type framework. Being more recent, Dexterity has been able to learn from some of the mistakes that were made Archetypes, and - more importantly - leverage some of the technologies that did not exist when Archetypes was first conceived.
Some of the main differences include:
- Dexterity is able to leverage many technologies that come with newer versions of CMF and Zope 3. This means that the Dexterity framework contains significantly less code than Archetypes. Dexterity also has better automated test coverage.
- Dexterity is more modular where Archetypes is more monolithic. This promises to make it easier to support things like SQL database-backed types, alternative workflow systems, instance-specific sub-types and so on. It also means that many of the components developed for Dexterity, such as the through-the-web schema editor, the “behaviors” system, or the forms construction API (plone.autoform) are re-usable in other contexts, e.g. to build standalone forms or even to augment existing Archetypes-based types.
- Archetypes has its own Schema implementation which is incompatible with the interface-based approached found in zope.interface and zope.schema. The latter is used throughout the Zope stack to describe components and build forms. Various techniques exist to bridge the Archetypes schema to the Zope 3 schema notation, but none are particularly attractive.
- Archetypes uses accessor and mutator methods to get/set values. These are generated and scribbled onto a class at startup. Dexterity uses attribute notation, so whereas in Archetypes you may write context.getFirstName(), in Dexterity you would write context.first_name.
- Archetypes has its own implementation of fields and widgets. It is difficult to re-use these in standalone forms or templates, because they are tied to the idea of a content object. Dexterity uses the de-facto standard z3c.form library instead, which means that the widgets used for standalone forms are the same as those used for content type add- and edit forms.
- Archetypes does not support add forms. Dexterity does, via z3c.form. This means that Dexterity types do not need to use the portal_factory hack to avoid stale objects in content space, and are thus significantly faster and less error prone.
- Archetypes requires a chunk of boilerplate in your product’s initialize() method (and requires that your package is registered as a Zope 2 product) and elsewhere. It requires a particular sequence of initialisation calls to register content classes, run the class generator to add accessors/mutators, and set up permissions. Dexterity does away with all that boilerplate, and tries to minimise repetition.
- It is possible to extend the schemata of existing Archetypes types with the archetypes.schemaextender product, although this adds some performance overhead and relies on a somewhat awkward programming technique. Dexterity types were built to be extensible from the beginning, and it is possible to declaratively turn on or off aspects of a type (such as Dublin Core metadata, locking support, ratings, tagging, etc) with re-usable “behaviors”.
- Dexterity is built from the ground up to support through-the-web type creation. There are products that achieve the same thing with Archetypes types, but they have to work around a number of limitations in the design of Archetypes that make them somewhat brittle or slow. Dexterity also allows types to be developed jointly through-the-web and on the filesystem. For example, a schema can be written in Python and then extended through the web.
All that said, Archetypes is still an older and more mature framework. Dexterity is a viable alternative to Archetypes in many projects, but if you are happy with Archetypes, you should not immediately rush to rewrite your types to use Dexterity.
There are also some things that Dexterity does not yet support, or, more commonly, services that Plone ships with that currently assume all content objects are built using Archetypes. The current list of “gaps” can be found in the Dexterity issue tracker. You should take a look at this before deciding whether Dexterity will work for you. If in doubt, don’t hesitate to write to the Dexterity mailing list and ask for advice.