Write a robot test for a new Plone add-on

This is a minimal tutorial for getting started with writing functional Selenium tests for a new Plone add-on with Robot Framework.

Install Templer

At first, we should have an add-on to test with. For creating a new add-on, we use Templer.

  1. Create a directory for a Templer-buildout and move there:

    $ mkdir templer-buildout
    $ cd templer-buildout
    
  2. Create a file templer-buildout/buildout.cfg for Templer-installation with:

    [buildout]
    parts = templer
    
    [templer]
    recipe = zc.recipe.egg
    eggs =
        templer.core
        templer.plone
    
  3. Download a bootstrap for running the buildout:

    $ curl -O http://python-distribute.org/bootstrap.py
    
  4. Bootstrap and run the buildout:

    $ python bootstrap.py --distribute
    $ bin/buildout
    Installing templer.
    Generated script '/.../templer-buildout/bin/templer'.
    
  5. Return back to the parent directory:

    $ cd ..
    

Create a new product

Once we have Templer installed, we create a Plone add-on product by entering templer-buildout/bin/templer plone_basic and answering to the upcoming questions.

We must make sure to answer True for the question:

Robot Tests (Should the default robot test be included) [False]: True

Once we have answered for all the questions, our add-on template is ready:

$ templer-buildout/bin/templer plone_basic

plone_basic: A package for Plone add-ons

This template creates a package for a basic Plone add-on project with
a single namespace (like Products.PloneFormGen).

To create a Plone project with a name like 'collective.geo.bundle'
(2 dots, a 'nested namespace'), use the 'plone_nested' template.

If you are trying to create a Plone *site* then the best place to
start is with one of the Plone installers.  If you want to build
your own Plone buildout, use one of the plone'N'_buildout templates


This template expects a project name with 1 dot in it (a 'basic
namespace', like 'foo.bar').

Enter project name (or q to quit): my.product

If at any point, you need additional help for a question, you can enter
'?' and press RETURN.

Expert Mode? (What question mode would you like? (easy/expert/all)?) ['easy']:
Version (Version number for project) ['1.0']:
Description (One-line description of the project) ['']:
Register Profile (Should this package register a GS Profile) [False]:
Robot Tests (Should the default robot test be included) [False]: True
Creating directory ./my.product
Replace 1019 bytes with 1378 bytes (2/43 lines changed; 8 lines added)
Replace 42 bytes with 119 bytes (1/1 lines changed; 4 lines added)

Bootstrap and run buildout

Before we continue, now is a good time to run bootstrap and buildout to get the development environment ready:

$ python bootstrap.py --distribute
$ bin/buildout

Run the default tests

Templer does create a couple of example tests for us – one of them being a robot test.

We can list the available tests with:

$ bin/test --list-tests
Listing my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional tests:
  Plone site (robot_test.txt) #start
Listing my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Integration tests:
  test_success (my.product.tests.test_example.TestExample)

And run the example robot test with:

$ bin/test -t robot_
Running my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional tests:
  Set up plone.testing.zca.LayerCleanup in 0.000 seconds.
  Set up plone.testing.z2.Startup in 0.237 seconds.
  Set up plone.app.testing.layers.PloneFixture in 8.093 seconds.
  Set up my.product.testing.MyproductLayer in 0.178 seconds.
  Set up plone.testing.z2.ZServer in 0.503 seconds.
  Set up my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional in 0.000 seconds.
  Running:

  Ran 1 tests with 0 failures and 0 errors in 2.588 seconds.
Tearing down left over layers:
  Tear down my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional in 0.000 seconds.
  Tear down plone.testing.z2.ZServer in 5.251 seconds.
  Tear down my.product.testing.MyproductLayer in 0.004 seconds.
  Tear down plone.app.testing.layers.PloneFixture in 0.087 seconds.
  Tear down plone.testing.z2.Startup in 0.006 seconds.
  Tear down plone.testing.zca.LayerCleanup in 0.005 seconds.

About functional test fixture

Functional Selenium tests require a fully functional Plone-environment.

Luckily, with plone.app.testing we can easily define a custom test fixture with Plone and our own add-on installed.

With Templer, both the base fixture and the functional test fixtures have already been defined in my.product/src/my/product/testing.py. The latter with:

from plone.app.testing import FunctionalTesting

...

MY_PRODUCT_FUNCTIONAL_TESTING = FunctionalTesting(
    bases=(MY_PRODUCT_FIXTURE, z2.ZSERVER_FIXTURE),
    name="MyproductLayer:Functional"
)

Create a new robot test suite

Robot tests are written as text files, which are called test suites.

It’s good practice, with Plone, to prefix all robot test suite files with robot_. This makes it easier to both exclude the robot tests (which are usually very time consuming) from test runs or run only the robot tests.

Write an another robot tests suite my.product/src/my/product/tests/robot_hello.txt:

*** Settings ***

Library  Selenium2Library  timeout=10  implicit_wait=0.5

Suite Setup  Start browser
Suite Teardown  Close All Browsers

*** Variables ***

${BROWSER} =  Firefox

*** Test Cases ***

Hello World
    [Tags]  hello
    Go to  http://localhost:55001/plone/hello-world
    Page should contain  Hello World!

*** Keywords ***

Start browser
    Open browser  http://localhost:55001/plone/  browser=${BROWSER}

Note

Defining browser for Open browser keyword as a variable makes it easy to run the test later with different browser.

Register the suite for zope.testrunner

To be able to run Robot Framework test suite with zope.testrunner and on top of our add-ons functional test fixture, we need to

  1. wrap the test suite into properly named Python unittest test suite
  2. assign our functional test layer for all the test cases.

We do this all by simply adding our new robot test suite into my.product/src/my/product/tests/test_robot.py:

from my.product.testing import MY_PRODUCT_FUNCTIONAL_TESTING
from plone.testing import layered
import robotsuite
import unittest


def test_suite():
    suite = unittest.TestSuite()
    suite.addTests([
        layered(robotsuite.RobotTestSuite("robot_test.txt"),
                layer=MY_PRODUCT_FUNCTIONAL_TESTING),
        layered(robotsuite.RobotTestSuite("robot_hello_world.txt"),
                layer=MY_PRODUCT_FUNCTIONAL_TESTING)
    ])
    return suite

Note that test_-prefix in the filename of test_robot.py is required for zope.testunner to find the test suite.

List and filter tests

Run bin/test (zope.testrunner) with --list-tests-argument to see that our test is registered correctly:

$ bin/test --list-tests
Listing my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional tests:
  Plone site (robot_test.txt) #start
  Hello_World (robot_hello_world.txt) #hello
Listing my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Integration tests:
  test_success (my.product.tests.test_example.TestExample)

Experiment with -t-argument to filter testrunner to find only our robot test:

$ bin/test -t robot_ --list-tests
Listing my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional tests:
  Plone site (robot_test.txt) #start
  Hello_World (robot_hello_world.txt) #hello

or everything else:

$ bin/test -t \!robot_ --list-tests
Listing my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Integration tests:
  test_success (my.product.tests.test_example.TestExample)

We can also filter robot tests with tags:

$ bin/test -t \#hello --list-tests
Listing my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional tests:
  Hello_World (robot_hello_world.txt) #hello

Run (failing) test

After the test has been written and registered, it can be run normally with bin/test.

The run will fail, because the test describes an unimplemented feature:

$ bin/test -t \#hello

Running my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional tests:
  Set up plone.testing.zca.LayerCleanup in 0.000 seconds.
  Set up plone.testing.z2.Startup in 0.217 seconds.
  Set up plone.app.testing.layers.PloneFixture in 7.643 seconds.
  Set up my.product.testing.MyproductLayer in 0.026 seconds.
  Set up plone.testing.z2.ZServer in 0.503 seconds.
  Set up my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional in 0.000 seconds.
  Running:
    1/1 (100.0%)
==============================================================================
Robot Hello World
==============================================================================
Hello World                                                           | FAIL |
Page should have contained text 'Hello World!' but did not
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Robot Hello World                                                     | FAIL |
1 critical test, 0 passed, 1 failed
1 test total, 0 passed, 1 failed
==============================================================================
Output:  /.../my.product/parts/test/robot_hello_world/Hello_World/output.xml
Log:     /.../my.product/parts/test/robot_hello_world/Hello_World/log.html
Report:  /.../my.product/parts/test/robot_hello_world/Hello_World/report.html



Failure in test Hello World (robot_hello_world.txt) #hello
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/.../unittest2-0.5.1-py2.7.egg/unittest2/case.py", line 340, in run
    testMethod()
  File "/.../eggs/robotsuite-1.0.2-py2.7.egg/robotsuite/__init__.py", line 317, in runTest
    assert last_status == 'PASS', last_message
AssertionError: Page should have contained text 'Hello World!' but did not


  Ran 1 tests with 1 failures and 0 errors in 3.632 seconds.
Tearing down left over layers:
  Tear down my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional in 0.000 seconds.
  Tear down plone.testing.z2.ZServer in 5.282 seconds.
  Tear down my.product.testing.MyproductLayer in 0.003 seconds.
  Tear down plone.app.testing.layers.PloneFixture in 0.084 seconds.
  Tear down plone.testing.z2.Startup in 0.006 seconds.
  Tear down plone.testing.zca.LayerCleanup in 0.004 seconds.

Create an example view

Create view described in the test by registering a template into my.product/src/my/product/configure.zcml:

<configure
    xmlns="http://namespaces.zope.org/zope"
    xmlns:five="http://namespaces.zope.org/five"
    xmlns:browser="http://namespaces.zope.org/browser"
    xmlns:i18n="http://namespaces.zope.org/i18n"
    xmlns:genericsetup="http://namespaces.zope.org/genericsetup"
    i18n_domain="my.product">

  <five:registerPackage package="." initialize=".initialize" />

  <browser:page
      name="hello-world"
      for="Products.CMFCore.interfaces.ISiteRoot"
      template="hello_world.pt"
      permission="zope2.View"
      />

  <!-- -*- extra stuff goes here -*- -->

</configure>

And writing the template into my.product/src/my/product/hello_world.pt:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"
      xmlns:tal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/tal"
      xmlns:metal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/metal"
      xmlns:i18n="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/i18n"
      lang="en"
      metal:use-macro="context/main_template/macros/master"
      i18n:domain="plone">
<body>

<metal:content-core fill-slot="content-core">
    <metal:content-core define-macro="content-core">
      <p>Hello World!</p>
    </metal:content-core>
</metal:content-core>

</body>
</html>

Run (passing) test

Re-run the test to see it passing:

$ bin/test -t \#hello
Running my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional tests:
  Set up plone.testing.zca.LayerCleanup in 0.000 seconds.
  Set up plone.testing.z2.Startup in 0.220 seconds.
  Set up plone.app.testing.layers.PloneFixture in 7.810 seconds.
  Set up my.product.testing.MyproductLayer in 0.027 seconds.
  Set up plone.testing.z2.ZServer in 0.503 seconds.
  Set up my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional in 0.000 seconds.
  Running:

  Ran 1 tests with 0 failures and 0 errors in 2.604 seconds.
Tearing down left over layers:
  Tear down my.product.testing.MyproductLayer:Functional in 0.000 seconds.
  Tear down plone.testing.z2.ZServer in 5.253 seconds.
  Tear down my.product.testing.MyproductLayer in 0.004 seconds.
  Tear down plone.app.testing.layers.PloneFixture in 0.085 seconds.
  Tear down plone.testing.z2.Startup in 0.006 seconds.
  Tear down plone.testing.zca.LayerCleanup in 0.004 seconds.

Test reports

Robot Framework generates high quality test reports with screenshots of failing tests as:

my.product/parts/tests/robot_report.html
Overview of the test results.
my.product/parts/tests/robot_log.html:
Detailed log for every test with screenshots of failing tests.