Caching Rules


How to program front end caching server (Varnish, Apache) to cache the content from Plone site.


Plone caching is configured using the add-on.

It supplies a web user interface for cache configuration and default caching rules for Plone.

Using only the web user interface, is very flexible already.

This document mainly deals how you can combine with your custom code.

Internally uses z3c.caching which defines programming level ZCML directives to create your cache rules. does both:

  • front end caching server support, and
  • in-memory cache in Zope. also defines default rules for various Plone out-of-the-box content views and item. See:

The caching operations (strong, moderate, weak) are defined in Python code itself, as they have quite tricky conditions.

You can find the default operations here:


You usually don’t need to override the operation classes itself. provides a web UI to override parameters, like timeout, for each rule on the Detailed settings tab in the cache control panel (Create per-ruleset parameters link).

Setting Per-view Cache Rules

Here is an example for how you can define cache rules for your custom view class. In this example we want to cache our site front page in Varnish, because is is very complex, and loads a lot of ZODB objects.

The front page is programmed using BrowserView.

Our front page is subject to moderate changes as new content comes in, but the changes are not time critical, so we define a one hour timeout for caching the front page.


Currently, setting caching rules for view classes is not supported through the web, but using ZCML or Python is the way to go.

In our case we are also using “a dummy cache” which does not provide purging through Plone. The only way to purge the front-end proxy is to use the Varnish control panel.

Here is our configure.zcml for our custom add-on browser package:


  <include package="z3c.caching" file="meta.zcml" />

  <!-- Let's define a ruleset which we use to cover all almost static
      pages which get heavy traffic.  This will appear in Cache
      configuration of Site setup control panel. -->
      description="Site homepage view"

  <!-- We include one BrowserView class in our ruleset. This view is being
      used at the site front page. -->


After defining the rule and checking that the rule appears in the caching control panel, we’ll:

  • assign Moderate caching operation to Homepage;
  • on the Detailed settings tab, we’ll use the Create per-ruleset command to override the default timeout of “24h” to be “1h” for Homepage.


Do not enable the Zope RAM cache for page templates.

You will end up having some bad page HTML in Zope’s internal cache and you will have no idea of how to clear it.


If you are testing the rule on a local computer first, remember to re-do caching control panels in the production environment, as they are stored in the database.

Testing The Rule

  • First we’ll test the rule on our local development computer to make sure that it loads;
  • then we’ll test the rule in the production environment with Varnish to see that Varnish picks up the Expires header.


To test rules, you need to run the site in production mode (not in the foreground). Otherwise is disabled.

Here is an example of using the wget UNIX command-line utility (discard the retrieved document and print the HTTP response headers)

wget --output-document=/dev/null --server-response http://localhost:8080/

The output looks like this:

huiske-imac:tmp moo$ wget --output-document=/dev/null --server-response http://localhost:8080/LS/courses
--2011-08-03 15:18:27--  http://localhost:8080/LS/courses
Resolving localhost (localhost)..., ::1
Connecting to localhost (localhost)||:8080... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response...
  HTTP/1.0 200 OK
  Server: Zope/(2.13.7, python 2.6.4, darwin) ZServer/1.1
  Date: Wed, 03 Aug 2011 12:18:55 GMT
  Content-Length: 42780
  Content-Language: en
  Expires: Sun, 05 Aug 2001 12:18:55 GMT
  Connection: Keep-Alive
  Cache-Control: max-age=0, s-maxage=3600, must-revalidate
  X-Cache-Rule: plone.homepage
  Content-Type: text/html;charset=utf-8
Length: 42780 (42K) [text/html]

We see that X-Cache-Operation and X-Cache-Rule from debug info are present. We understand that it is setting HTTP headers correctly, and that the front end server (Varnish) will receive the appropriate directives.

After deploying the change in the production environment, we’ll check whether Varnish is picking up the rule.

We fetch the page twice. The first run is cold (not yet cached), and the second run should be cached.

wget --output-document=/dev/null --server-response
wget --output-document=/dev/null --server-response

The output:

huiske-imac:tmp moo$ wget -S
--2011-08-03 15:39:10--
Resolving (
Connecting to (||:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response...
  HTTP/1.1 200 OK
  Server: Zope/(2.13.7, python 2.6.5, linux2) ZServer/1.1
  Content-Language: en
  Expires: Sun, 05 Aug 2001 12:34:06 GMT
  Cache-Control: max-age=0, s-maxage=3600, must-revalidate
  X-Cache-Rule: plone.homepage
  Content-Type: text/html;charset=utf-8
  Content-Length: 43466
  Date: Wed, 03 Aug 2011 12:34:14 GMT
  X-Varnish: 72735907 72735905
  Age: 8
  Via: 1.1 varnish
  Connection: keep-alive
Length: 43466 (42K) [text/html]

Notice that you have two numbers in the header from Varnish:

X-Varnish: 72735907 72735905

These are Varnish internal timestamps: when the request was pulled into the cache, and when it was served.

If you see only one number on subsequent requests, then it means that Varnish is not caching the request because it’s fetching the page from Plone every time.

If you see two numbers, then you know it is OK (and you can feel the speed).

More info:

Creating A “Cache Forever” View

You might create views which generate or produce resources (images, JS, CSS) on the fly.

If you always refer these views through a content unique URL, you can cache the view result forever.

This can be done as follows.

  • Using blob._p_mtime or similar to get the modified timestamp of the related content item. All persistent ZODB objects have _p_mtime.
  • Setting a plone.stableResource ruleset on the view.

Related ZCML


  <include package="z3c.caching" file="meta.zcml" />
  <include package="" />

  <!-- Because we generate the image URL containing image modified timestamp,
       the URL is always stable, and when the image changes, then the URL changes.
       Thus we can use strong caching (cache URL forever).



Related view code:

from Products.Five import BrowserView

class ImagePortletImageDownload(BrowserView):
    Expose image fields as downloadable BLOBS from the image portlet.

    Allow set caching rules (content caching for this view)

    def __call__(self):

        content = self.context

        # Read portlet assignment pointers from the GET query
        name = self.request.form.get("portletName")
        portletManager = self.request.form.get("portletManager")
        imageId = self.request.form.get("image")

        # Resolve portlet and its image field
        manager = getUtility(IPortletManager, name=portletManager, context=content)
        mapping = getMultiAdapter((content, manager), IPortletAssignmentMapping)
        portlet = mapping[name]
        image = getattr(portlet, imageId, None)
        if not image:
            # oops?
            return ""

        # Set content type and length headers
        set_headers(image, self.request.response)

        # Push data to the downstream clients
        return stream_data(image)

When we refer to the view in <img src>, we use the modified time parameter:

def getImageURL(self, imageDesc):
    :return: The URL from where the image can be downloaded.

    context = self.context.aq_inner

    params = dict(

    imageURL = "%s/@@image-portlet-downloader?%s" % (context.absolute_url(), urllib.urlencode(params))

    return imageURL

Related ZCML registration: